Optic neuritis ON is a primary inflammation of the optic nerve. ON is mostly idiopathic, and infrequently occurs on the background of systemic autoimmune disease, recent infectious disease or inoculation with mostly adjuvanted vaccines. Published case histories, retrospective reviews and analyses of epidemiological data report on the onset of immune-mediated ON and other autoimmune disorders within a defined period days to weeks after immunization of patients with probable genetic predisposition. After vaccination, there exists no long-term increased risk to develop ON.
African medical knowledge, the plain style, and satire in the 1721 Boston inoculation controversy
Stress Inoculation Training by Mike Lauria
A meta-analysis is a statistical analysis that combines the results of multiple scientific studies. Meta-analysis can be performed when there are multiple scientific studies addressing the same question, with each individual study reporting measurements that are expected to have some degree of error. The aim then is to use approaches from statistics to derive a pooled estimate closest to the unknown common truth based on how this error is perceived. Existing methods for meta-analysis yield a weighted average from the results of the individual studies, and what differs is the manner in which these weights are allocated and also the manner in which the uncertainty is computed around the point estimate thus generated. In addition to providing an estimate of the unknown common truth, meta-analysis has the capacity to contrast results from different studies and identify patterns among study results, sources of disagreement among those results, or other interesting relationships that may come to light in the context of multiple studies. A key benefit of this approach is the aggregation of information leading to a higher statistical power and more robust point estimate than is possible from the measure derived from any individual study.
Inoculation theory, a theory of conferring resistance to persuasive influence, has established efficacy as a messaging strategy in the health domain. In fact, the earliest research on the theory in the s involved health issues to build empirical support for tenets in the inoculation framework. Over the ensuing decades, scholars have further examined the effectiveness of inoculation-based messages at creating robust positive health attitudes. We overview these efforts, highlight the structure of typical inoculation-based health messages, and describe the similarities and differences between this method of counter-persuasion and other preparatory techniques commonly employed by health researchers and practitioners.
Introduction: Stingray spine injuries are among the most common marine animal injuries in humans. While most resolve with immersion in warm water, a few become infected and require antibiotics. We present a case report of a presumptive stingray injury that evolved to a major slough and which required prolonged healing in a patient with diabetes mellitus.