The theorizing about population population size and change have remained an important subject since time immemorial. Many of the ancient philosophers like Confucius China , Kautilya India , Ibn Khaldin Arab , Plato Greece and modem thinkers like Adam Smith, David Richard and others, eidier directly or indirectly, have said somewhat significant on population issues. To the Jews, the injunction to. The Chinese philosopher, Confucius argued that a numerical balance be maintained between population and environment. Thus, he was not in favour of unchecked growth of population.
An Essay on the Principle of Population - Wikipedia
The essay examines population growth and its limits. Writing as, at the time, a loyal subject of the British Empire , Franklin argues that the British should increase their population and power by expanding across the Americas, taking the view that Europe is too crowded. Franklin projected an exponential growth doubling every twenty five years  in the population of the British colonies , so that in a century "the greatest Number of Englishmen will be on this Side of the Water", thereby increasing the power of England. As Englishmen they would share language, manners, and religion with their countrymen in England, thus extending English civilization and English rule substantially. Franklin viewed the land in America as underutilized and available for the expansion of farming. This enabled the population to establish households at an earlier age and support larger families than was possible in Europe. The limit to expansion, reached in Europe but not America, is reached when the "crowding and interfering with each other's means of subsistence", an idea that would inspire Malthus.
An Essay on the Principle of Population, Second Edition (Norton Critical Editions)
All life on Earth is related. Evolutionary theory states that humans, beetles, plants, and bacteria all share a common ancestor, but that millions of years of evolution have shaped each of these organisms into the forms seen today. Scientists consider evolution a key concept to understanding life. Natural selection is one of the most dominant evolutionary forces.
Thomas Robert Malthus enunciated his views about population in his famous book, Essay on the Principle of Population as it affects the Future Improvement of Society, published in Malthus revolted against the prevailing optimism shared by his father and Godwin that a perfect state could be attained if human restraints could be removed. Malthus was severely criticised for his pessimistic views which led him to travel on the continent of Europe to gather data in support of his thesis. He incorporated his researches in the second edition of his Essay published in